Intentional deviation of a wellbore from the vertical.
Although wellbores are normally drilled vertically, it is sometimes necessary or advantageous to drill at an angle from the vertical.
Controlled directional drilling makes is possible to reach subsurface areas laterally remote from the point where the bit enters the earth.
It often involves the use of turbodrills, dyna-drills, whipstocks, or other deflecting rods.
2. the intentional deviation of a wellbore from the path it would naturally take.
This is accomplished through the use of whipstocks, bottomhole assembly (bha) configurations, instruments to measure the path of the wellbore in three-dimensional space, data links to communicate measurements taken downhole to the surface, mud motors and special bha components and drill bits.
The directional driller also exploits drilling parameters such as weight on bit and rotary speed to deflect the bit away from the axis of the existing wellbore.
In some cases, such as drilling steeply dipping formations or unpredictable deviation in conventional drilling operations, directional-drilling techniques may be employed to ensure that the hole is drilled vertically.
While many techniques can accomplish this, the general concept is simple: point the bit in the direction that one wants to drill.
The most common way is through the use of a bend near the bit in a downhole steerable mud motor.
The bend points the bit in a direction different from the axis of the wellbore when the entire drillstring is not rotating.
By pumping mud through the mud motor, the bit turns while the drillstring does not rotate, allowing the bit to drill in the direction it points.
When a particular wellbore direction is achieved, that direction may be maintained by rotating the entire drillstring (including the bent section) so that the bit does not drill in a single direction off the wellbore axis, but instead sweeps around and its net direction coincides with the existing wellbore. rotary steerable tools allow steering while rotating, usually with higher rates of penetration and ultimately smoother boreholes.