Steel pipe placed in an oil or gas well as drilling progresses to prevent the wall of the hole from caving in during drilling, to prevent seepage of fluids, and to provide a means of extracting petroleum if the well is productive.
Large-diameter pipe lowered into an openhole and cemented in place.
The well designer must design casing to withstand a variety of forces, such as collapse, burst, and tensile failure, as well as chemically aggressive brines.
Most casing joints are fabricated with male threads on each end, and short-length casing couplings with female threads are used to join the individual joints of casing together, or joints of casing may be fabricated with male threads on one end and female threads on the other.
Casing is run to protect fresh-water formations, isolate a zone of lost returns or isolate formations with significantly different pressure gradients.
The operation during which the casing is put into the wellbore is commonly called “running pipe.” casing is usually manufactured from plain carbon steel that is heat-treated to varying strengths, but may be specially fabricated of stainless steel, aluminum, titanium, fiberglass and other materials.